Who Invented The Internet
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It's clumsy wording, to be sure. But it's clear from looking at Gore's whole statement that he never claimed to have invented the Internet, in the sense of writing code or laying fiber-optic cables. He meant only to take credit for the contributions that he made as a member of Congress, contributions that have been lauded by people like Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf, who wrote the code that serves as the foundation for the Internet.
Two days after Gore appeared on CNN, libertarian writer Declan McCullagh posted a story on Wired News mocking him for claiming to be the \"father of the Internet.\" McCullagh never used the word \"invented,\" but it took only a few days before it mutated into its current form, helping to cement the public perception of Gore as a serial exaggerator.
Most people consider Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn, who designed the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) in 1973, to be the inventors of the internet. During that time, the internet morphed out of ARPANet, a government project. However, it would be unfair to credit the invention of such a ubiquitous network to a single person since dozens of pioneering scientists, programmers, and engineers made fundamental contributions to the internet as we know it today.
In 1973, computers at the University College of London in England and the Royal Radar Establishment in Norway connected to ARPANET, marking the first global computer network. It is during this time that the term internet (inter-networks) was born.
The year 1995 was a watershed year for the Internet: Microsoft launched Windows 95 and Internet Explorer, services like Amazon, Yahoo and eBay appeared, and Java was created, allowing for animation on websites and resulting in a new flurry of internet activity.
The internet has gone a long way from the first stuttered hello at UCLA on October 29, 1969. It was all made possible by overcoming the apparent technical triviality of making two computers talk to each other, something that we owe not only to Cerf and Kahn but quite possibly hundreds of scientists.
Despite the multitudinous derisive references to the supposed quote that continue to be proffered even today, former U.S. vice president Al Gore never claimed that he \"invented\" the Internet, nor did he say anything that could reasonably be interpreted that way. The legend arose from critics and pundits who plucked a relatively credible statement Gore made during the course of an interview, altered its wording, and stripped it of context to make it seem a ridiculously self-serving falsehood.
The \"Al Gore claimed he 'invented' the Internet\" put-downs were misleading distortions that originated with a campaign interview conducted by Wolf Blitzer on CNN's Late Edition program on 9 March 1999. (Gore, then the sitting Vice President, was seeking the 2000 Democratic presidential nomination.)
In context, Gore's response (which employed the word \"created,\" not \"invented\") was clear in meaning: the vice president was not claiming that he \"invented\" the Internet in the sense of having thought up, designed, or implemented it, but rather asserting that he was one of the visionaries responsible for helping to bring it into being by fostering its development in an economic and legislative sense.
The claim that Gore was actually trying to take credit for the \"invention\" of the Internet was plainly just derisive political posturing that arose out of a close presidential campaign. If, for example, Dwight Eisenhower had said in the mid-1960s that he, while president, \"took the initiative in creating the Interstate Highway System,\" he would not have been the subject of dozens and dozens of editorials lampooning him for claiming he \"invented\" the concept of highways or implying that he personally went out and dug ditches across the country to help build the roadway. Everyone would have understood that Eisenhower meant he was a driving force behind the legislation that created the highway system, and this was the very same concept Al Gore was expressing about himself with interview remarks about the Internet.
No one person or even small group of persons exclusively \"invented\" the Internet. It is the result of many years of ongoing collaboration among people in government and the university community. But as the two people who designed the basic architecture and the core protocols that make the Internet work, we would like to acknowledge VP Gore's contributions as a Congressman, Senator and as Vice President. No other elected official, to our knowledge, has made a greater contribution over a longer period of time.
Last year the Vice President made a straightforward statement on his role. He said: \"During my service in the United States Congress I took the initiative in creating the Internet.\" We don't think, as some people have argued, that Gore intended to claim he \"invented\" the Internet. Moreover, there is no question in our minds that while serving as Senator, Gore's initiatives had a significant and beneficial effect on the still-evolving Internet. The fact of the matter is that Gore was talking about and promoting the Internet long before most people were listening. We feel it is timely to offer our perspective.
Let's get the obvious joke out of the way: It wasn't Al Gore who invented the Internet. In fact, Mr. Gore never really claimed to have done so. In a 1999 interview with CNN's Wolf Blitzer, the then-vice president said that he had taken the initiative in creating the Internet, meaning that as a politician he had supported the computer scientists, programmers and engineers who built the global network through legislation.
Other notable contributors were Ray Tomlinson, who invented e-mail, and Abhay Bhushan, who developed the original specifications for file transfer protocol (FTP). In 1983, Paul Mockapetris invented something that's key to the way we interface with the Internet: the Domain Name System. Devices connected to the Internet all have addresses that are a series of numerals. But most people aren't very good at remembering long strings of numbers. Mockapetris developed a way to let people type in word-based addresses that computers could cross reference with a database of numerical addresses.
The story starts with the early networking breakthroughs formulated in Cold War think tanks and realized in the Defense Department's creation of the ARPANET. It ends with the emergence of the Internet and its rapid and seemingly chaotic growth. Abbate looks at how academic and military influences and attitudes shaped both networks; how the usual lines between producer and user of a technology were crossed with interesting and unique results; and how later users invented their own very successful applications, such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web. She concludes that such applications continue the trend of decentralized, user-driven development that has characterized the Internet's entire history and that the key to the Internet's success has been a commitment to flexibility and diversity, both in technical design and in organizational culture.
In other words, we should not take too much comfort from the fact that the global internet first evolved thanks to cooperative capitalists, not competitive socialists: the story of the Soviet internet is a reminder that we internet users enjoy no guarantees that the private interests propping up the internet will behave any better than those greater forces whose unwillingness to cooperate not only spelled the end of Soviet electronic socialism but threatens to end the current chapter in our network age.
Emeagwali has said that his inspiration for this development came from watching bees working together in nature, and realised that he could build computer systems that can work and internally communicate like a beehive. This achievement led to him earning the 1989 Gordon Bell Prize from the Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, and this computing breakthrough of a practical way for computers to communicate with each other helped lead in the direction of the development of the internet. The technology that Philip designed is used today in the system of computers that are used by all search engines. So every time you do a Google search you can thank Dr Philip Emeagwali!
Mark Dean is a computer scientist who has played a key part in the development of many computer technologies, including the colour computer monitor and the first gigahertz chip. He was also in the team who invented the system which allows for computer plug-ins such as disk drives and printers.
Marian R. Croak is the inventor of Voice over Internet Protocol, which enables us to use our internet network for voice and multimedia communications. Many of us have been using this technology more frequently over the last few month in the form of video conferencing software, such as Zoom or Skype calls. Marian has had an impressive career in the technology industry and has over 200 patents in her name, many of which are integral to the internet technologies we use daily. Marian was an early advocate in switching from wired telephone technology to internet services and has been a pioneer and forward thinker throughout her career. Marian also pioneered the use of phone network services to enable the public to easily donate to humanitarian causes. Marian currently works in research and development at Google.
While working at the U.S. agency ARPA, they helped send the first message on the ARPANET, and a few years later they set out to accomplish one of the biggest and most audacious of goals: to create a global decentralized internet.
Every personal computer on the internet is assigned an IP address (you can find your public IP address here).Every website (aka. the server where a websites lives) also has an IP address. For example, if you type in the IP address 184.108.40.206 your browser will go to www.google.com.
A telling moment in the presidential race came recently when Barack Obama said: \"